Krivolapchuk Igor Allerovich
Доктор биологических наук, Dr. Sci. (Biolog), Head of Laboratory of Physiology of Muscular Activity and Physical Training, Institute of the Russian Academy of Education Institute for Developmental Physiology, i.krivolapchuk@mail.ru, Moscow
Gerasimova Anstasia Allerovna
Кандидат медицинских наук, Cand. Sci. (Medic.), Senior Researcher, Institute of the Russian Academy of Education Institute for Developmental, ,, Moscow
Chernova Maria Borisovna
Кандидат педагогических наук, Cand. Sci. (Pedag.), Senior Researcher, Institute of the Russian Academy of Education Institute for Developmental, mashacernova@mail.ru, Moscow

Functional Development of Children 6–7 years old with Different Levels of Informatization of Living Conditions

Currently, world science is actively conducting research aimed at analyzing the influence of the modern digital environment on motor fitness, physical development and functional capabilities of preschoolers. Despite the available data, the problem under consideration remains poorly understood, especially in relation to preschool children. The aim of the study is to identify the features of the functional development of children 6–7 years old, taking into account the level of informatization of living conditions. Research methodology. The study involved practically healthy children 6–7 years old. To assess the information load of children when using digital technologies, a modified index of informatization of living conditions was used. The set of physical fitness tests included control exercises to assess speed, speed-strength, coordination motor abilities, flexibility, general and strength endurance. According to the well-known formulas, a double product, Kerdo’s vegetative index, Myznikov’s index, an indicator of the body’s adaptive potential and body mass index were determined. Results. The data obtained indicate that boys, on average, are characterized by a higher indicator of informatization of living conditions in comparison with girls. The differences were revealed, determined by the degree of informatization of living conditions, in terms of general and strength endurance, speed, speed-strength and coordination abilities, physical development, as well as the functional capabilities of the organism. The results of the study give grounds to believe that an adequate mode of physical education, ensuring the satisfaction of the biological needs of children for physical activity, may be the most important factor in increasing their motor fitness, preventing adverse changes in functional development with the active use of digital technologies in everyday life. Conclusions. Analysis of the influence of digital technologies on the functional development of children aged 6–7 years has shown that the features of motor fitness, functional capabilities of the body and physical development of boys and girls aged 6-7 years depend on the level of informatization of living conditions. It turned out that with an increase in the time of using digital technologies in the daily routine, there is a decrease in the considered indicators of the morphological and functional development of children.
digital technologies, modified index of informatization, motor abilities, functional capabilities, physical development.

1. Kuchma, V. R., Tkachuk, E. A., Tarmaeva, I. Yu., 2016. Psychophysiological state of children in the conditions of informatization of their vital activity and intensification of education. Hygiene and Sanitation, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1183–1188. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2016-95-12-1183-1188.
2. Alhassan, S., St Laurent, C. W., Burkart, S., Greever, C. J., Ahmadi, M. N., 2019. Feasibility of Integrating Physical Activity Into Early Education Learning Standards on Preschooler’s Physical Activity Levels. Journal of physical activity & health., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 101–107. DOI: 10.1123/jpah.2017-0628.
3. Anderson, S. E., Whitaker, R. C., 2010. Household routines and obesity in US preschool-aged children. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 420–428. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0417.
4. Arora, T., Broglia, E., Thomas, G. N., Taheri, S., 2014. Associations between specific technologies and adolescent sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias. Sleep Med., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 240–247. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2013.08.799.
5. Cabanas-Sánchez, V., Martínez-Gómez, D., Esteban-Cornejo, I., Pérez-Bey, A., Castro Piñero, J., Veiga, O. L., 2019. Associations of total sedentary time, screen time and non-screen sedentary time with adiposity and physical fitness in youth: the mediating effect of physical activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 839–849. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1530058.
6. Carson, V., Lee, E. Y., Hesketh, K. D., Hunter, S., Kuzik, N., Predy, M., Rhodes, R. E., Rinaldi, C. M., Spence, J. C., Hinkley, T., 2019. Physical activity and sedentary behavior across three time-points and associations with social skills in early childhood. BMC Public Health., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 27–34. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6381-x.
7. Cieśla, E., Mleczko, E., Bergier, J., Markowska, M., Nowak-Starz, G., 2014. Health-Related Physical Fitness, BMI, physical activity and time spent at a computer screen in 6 and 7-year-old children from rural areas in Poland Affiliations expand. Ann Agric Environ Med., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 617–621. DOI: 10.5604/12321966.1120613.
8. Da Silva, L., Fisberg, M., de Souza Pires, M., Nassar, S., Sottovia, C., 2013. The effectiveness of a physical activity and nutrition education program in the prevention of overweight in schoolchildren in Criciúma, Brazil.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1200–1204.
9. Delfino, L. D., Dos Santos Silva, D. A., Tebar, W. R., Zanuto, E. F., Codogno J. S., Fernandes R. A., Christofaro D. G., 2018. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 58, no. 3,
pp. 318–325. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.06980-8.
10. Emm-Collison, L. G., Lewis, S., Reid, T., Matthews, J., Sebire S. J., Thompson, J. L., Salway, R., Jago, R., 2019. Striking a Balance: Physical Activity, Screen-Viewing and Homework during the Transition to Secondary School. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health., vol. 16 (17), pp. 31–74. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173174.
11. Fakhouri, T. H., Hughes, J. P., Brody, D. J., Kit, B. K., Ogden, C. L., 2013. Physical activity and screen-time viewing among elementary school-aged children in the United States from 2009 to 2010. Jama Pediatrics., vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 223–229.
12. Friedrich, R. R., Polet, J. P., Schuch, I., Wagner, M. B., 2014. Effect of intervention programs in schools to reduce screen time: a meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatrics., vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 232–241. DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2014.01.003.
13. Gothwal, V. K., Thomas, R., Crossland, M., Bharani, S., Sharma, S., Unwin, H., Xing, W., Khabra, K., Dahlmann-Noor, A., 2018. Randomized Trial of Tablet Computers for Education and Learning in Children and Young People with Low Vision. Optometry and Vision Science., vol. 95, № 9, pp. 873–882. DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001270.
14. Hardy, L. L., Ding, D., Peralta, L. R., Mihrshahi, S., Merom, D., 2018. Association Between Sitting, Screen Time, Fitness Domains, and Fundamental Motor Skills in Children Aged 5-16 Years: Cross-Sectional Population Study. Journal of physical activity & health, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 933–940.
DOI: 10.1123/jpah.2017-0620.
15. Hoge, E., Bickham, D., Cantor, J., 2017. Digital Media, Anxiety, and Depression in Children. Pediatrics, vol. 140 (Suppl 2), pp. 76–80. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758G.
16. Janssen, X., Martin, A., Hughes, A. R., Hill, C.M., Kotronoulas, G., Hesketh, K. R., 2019. Associations of screen time, sedentary time and physical activity with sleep in under 5s: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev., vol. 49, pp. 101–226. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2019.101226.
17. Kautiainen, S., Koivusilta, L., Lintonen, T., Virtanen, M., Rimpelä, A., 2005. Use of information and communication technology and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents. International Journal of Obesity, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 925–933. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802994.
18. Körmendi, A., 2015. Smartphone usage among adolescents. Psychiatr Hung., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 297–302. (in Hu)
19. Kremer, P., Elshaug, C., Leslie, E., Toumbourou, J. W., Patton, G. C., Williams, J., 2014. Physical activity, leisure-time screen use and depression among children and young adolescents. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 183–187. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2013.03.012.
20. Lange, K., Cohrs, S., Skarupke, C., Görke, M., Szagun, B., Schlack, R., 2017. Electronic media use and insomnia complaints in German adolescents: gender differences in use patterns and sleep problems. Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 124 (Suppl 1), pp. 79–87. DOI: 10.1007/s00702-015-1482-5.
21. Lepp, A., Barkley, J., Sanders, G., Rebold, M., Gates, P., 2013. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students. International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 10, pp. 79–87.
22. Leppänen, M. H., Henriksson, P., Henriksson, H., Delisle Nyström, C., Llorente-Cantarero, F. J., Löf, M., 2019. Physical Activity Level Using Doubly-Labeled Water in Relation to Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers. Medicina (Kaunas), vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 2–10. DOI: 10.3390/medicina55010002.
23. Mitchell, J. A., Pate, R. R., Blair, S. N., 2012. Screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness from age 11 to 13. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1302–1309. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318247cd73.
24. Morin, C. M., 1993. Insomnia: Psychological Assessment and Management. New York: Guilford Press Publ., 238 p. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2460100113.
25. Mustafaoğlu, R., Zirek, E., Yasacı, Z., Razak Özdinçler, A., 2018. The negative effects of digital technology usage on children’s development and health. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 227–247. DOI: 10.15805/addicta.2018.5.2.0051.
26. Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Stillerman, B., Yang, S., Zhou, M., 2012. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls. Developmental psychology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 327–336. DOI: 10.1037/a0027030.
27. Pfledderer, C. D., Burns, R. D., Brusseau, T. A., 2019. Association between Access to Electronic Devices in the Home Environment and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children. Children (Basel), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 8. DOI: 10.3390/children6010008.
28. Potter, M., Spence, J. C., Boulé, N., Stearns, J. A., Carson, V., 2018. Behavior Tracking and 3-Year Longitudinal Associations Between Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Fitness Among Young Children. Pediatric exercise science., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 132–141. DOI: 10.1123/pes.2016-0239.
29. Racine, E. F., DeBate, R. D., Gabriel, K. P., High, R. R., 2011. The relationship between media use and psychological and physical assets among third- to fifth-grade girls. Journal of School Health, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 749–755. DOI: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00654.x.
30. Sandercock, G. R., Ogunleye, A. A., 2013. Independence of physical activity and screen time as predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Pediatric Research, vol. 73, pp. 692–697.
31. Sanders, W., Parent, J., Abaied, J. L., Forehand, R., Coyne, S., Dyerc, W. J., 2018. The Longitudinal Impact of Screen Time on Adolescent Development: Moderation by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia. Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 459–465. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.05.019.
32. Tandon, P., Zhou, C., Sallis, J., Cain, K. L., Frank, L. D., Saelens, B. E., 2012. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 88. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-88.
33. Tolbert Kimbro, R., Brooks-Gunn, J. and McLanahan, S., 2011. Young children in urban areas Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, otudoor play, and television watching. Social Science and Medicine, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 668–676. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010. 12.015.
34. Tremblay, M. S., Carson, V., Chaput, J-P., Connor Gorber, S., Dinh, T., Duggan, M., 2016. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 41 (6 Suppl 3), pp. 311–327. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0151.
35. Tremblay, M. S., LeBlanc, A. G., Kho, M. E., Saunders, T. J., Larouche, R., Colley, R. C., et al., 2011. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 8, pp. 98. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-98.
36. Venetsanou, F., Kambas, A., Gourgoulis, V., Yannakoulia, M., 2019. Physical activity in pre-school children: Trends over time and associations with body mass index and screen time. Annals of Human Biology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 393–399. DOI: 10.1080/03014460.2019.1659414.
37. Wu, X., Tao, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Tao, F., 2015. Low Physical Activity and High Screen Time Can Increase the Risks of Mental Health Problems and Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese College Students. PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 3, p. e0119607. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119607.